Voter disenfranchisement is common fraud
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One of the most common types of electron fraud is disenfranchisement of voters. This happens in every country where elections are held, even the US where you would think people wouldn’t stoop to such underhanded tactics (wait, of course they would!). Disenfranchisement essentially means making it so that people can’t vote and can be accomplished in a variety of ways.
Some disenfranchisement is perfectly legal and enacted through laws. It’s not always voter fraud, either. For instance, in the US there’s a law that bans all convicted felons from voting in elections. It’s meant to be a deterrent to committing crimes. If you end up in jail on a felony you never get to participate in government again. Shadier types of laws can be passed and these tend to happen in other, lesser developed countries (stuff like banning anyone that recently became a citizen from voting, etc). The US sticks to other, less easy to notice types of disenfranchisement.
Groups targeted for disenfranchisement are those that are less likely to speak up about it. These tend to be poor, ethnic groups in the US who are less likely to speak up about anything in the first place. The simplest types of disenfranchisement are half effective. It’s the sort of stuff that makes it a little harder to get your vote in so it seems more difficult and thus people who are in a rush and need to get to work will simply skip over voting and let their disenfranchisement happen. It’s voter fraud but in a non-prosecutable kind of way.
There are more overt kinds of election fraud through disenfranchisement as well. Some voters may find that they’ve been removed from the electoral roll, making it almost impossible for them to cast a vote without an incredible hassle involving phone calls, visits to county offices, and more. It’s a simple task to take someone off and a nightmare to get back on. In the past voters have been disenfranchised by having to meet unnecessary identification requirements or having to pass ridiculous tests, being told that those things are necessary for them to vote when in fact that’s not the truth. These voters tend to the type that will believe these things to be true and simply give up on trying to vote. This happened a lot in the United States prior to 1965 and still happens in smaller pockets.
Voter intimidation is a serious and frequently used form of electoral fraud. People tend not to report it because they’re afraid of those intimidating them. In the US unions have been known to essentially require that their members vote a certain way under threat of ominous but unsaid awful occurrences if they don’t. Threats are made in unbelievable ways but still have an effect, such as a mailing that goes out telling everyone that if they’ve already voted in an election in that year that they can’t vote for president. It’s absurd but it manages to turn away some people and that’s a basic and effective form of electoral fraud through voter disenfranchisement.